Know your two wheeler

A two wheeler is generally operated by a 2- stroke spark ignition internal combustion engine

which supplies power to the wheels. The efficiency of which depends mainly on the compression

ratio and speed of rotation.

The Development of two wheeled scooters, motor cycles, mopeds and 3-wheelers equipped

with-2 stroke cycle engine is the outcome of research for a low cost mode of travel. These vehicles

are easy to drive and have good maneoeuvrability.

There has been a steady growth in the population of the/ three wheelers in our country. In March,

1996 the total population of two/tree-wheelers in the country was estimated at 24 million vehicles.

Stroke Engine

The Indian two-wheelers are mostly fitted with conventional 2- stroke engines. However, a few

manufacturers have introduced 4- stroke engine, the 4-strock engine has higher fuel efficiency, better

volumetric efficiency, complete fuel combustion and minimum air pollution. The engine is provided

with a separate oil tank to supply lubrication oil through the oil pump. At low speed and low load

extra oil is not supplied to the engine. This minimizes oil consumption and maximizes the interval

between de-carbonisation and thereby minimizes air pollution

Circulate free in public interest by P.C.R.A.


The oil companies have developed superior 2T oils specially for use in 2 stroke engines as

lubricating oil to be mixed with fuel in the recommended dosage at the time of filling.

The benefits of using superior 2T oils in the right proportion are: –

a) Excellent lubrication of engines at all operating temperatures and under the most adverse conditions.

b) Reduced spark plug fouling which also reduces maintenance cost.

c) Deposits formation in combustion chamber, exhaust port and the muffler is reduced,

thereby extending the periods between decarbonisation and leading to reduced power


d) Reduced wear of piston rings, cylinder, cylinder liners and associated components

thereby lengthening of the life of the engine.

e) Optimum performance of the engine.


1. Drive steadily and at the optimum speed :- Drive at an optimum speed of 30-40 kmph.

You will be surprised to find that your travel time does not increase significantly. Sudden

starts and ‘stop-and-ago’ driving waste fuel. Research shows that fat and rash driving can

increase fuel consumption substantially.

2. Use brakes sparingly :– A good driver anticipates stops. When you slam on the brakes, you

waste a lot of useful energy. Anticipate corner- you will be able to negotiate them without


3. Let go of your clutch: – Unnecessary use of the clutch leads to loss of power.

4. Clean air filter regularly:- Dust leads to rapid wear of engine components and increases

fuel combustion. Choked exhaust ports & Silencer make your engine struggle to breathe,

causing poor combustion.

5. Watch your tyre pressure: – Under inflated tyres increase rolling resistance and petrol

consumption. Tests show that under inflation of tyres by 25 % causes a 5 % increase in fuel

consumption and a 25% decrease in tyre life.

6. Stop fuel leaks :– Check your fuel tank, carburetor, and fuel lines daily for sings of leaking

fuel. Loss of one drop of fuel per second amounts to nearly 2000 litres per year.

7. Stop the engine if you stop for more than 2 minuets :- Idling can cost money- and fuel.

Stop your engine at long waits, for example, at railway crossings.

8. Keep your engine in good condition :– Tests on a large number of vehicles show that you

can save over 6% fuel by regular tuning. If your engine emits smoke of has poor pulling

power, have it checked immediately at a reputed garage.

9. Use superior 2T oils for lubrication :– Mix superior 2T oil conforming to international

API/TC specifications in recommended dosage to derive various benefits.


Different gears are provide to use the power of the engine to suit the work it has to do. In a

low gear, the engine revolution is faster, and so it consumes more fuel than it normally would

at the same road speed in a higher gear. For maximum fuel economy, gear changes must be

made at the right moment, that is when the speed you have reached in a low gear can be

maintained without increase acceleration in the next higher gear, or when you change down

without causing noisy, racing surge in the engine speed. Please follow the speed limits in the

engine speed. Please follow the speed limits for economical gear shifting as recommended by

the manufacturer.


Developed by Ministry of Industry Government of Indian

on the basis of trials carried out at Automotive Research

Association of India ( ARA) and Vehicle Research &

Development establishment ( VRDE).

Engine Capacity Kms/ litre of gasoline (min)

Less than 35 C.C. 95

35 C.C. to 75 C.C. 87

( Variable transmission)

35 C.C. to 75 C.C. 83

( Fixed transmission)

75 C.C. to 200 C.C. 60

Greater than 200 cc 55


Cause Remedy

1. Spark plug defects – Adjust gap and clean the plug point, Replace if


2. Fuel system Carburettor clogged/dirty – Check for, fuel leaks & rectify

Clean fuel, tank fuel tube, jet & carburetor body.

3. Air cleaner choked/dirty – Remove and clean it with air petrol and blow dry

with air.

4. Choke value sticking in closed position – Lubricate the choke control lever and keep it in

open position.

5. Hard to start due to over flow of the engine – Check points 1 to 4 given above while parking keep

fuel value in closed position and park at a paper

ground level.

6. Silencer outlet pipe choked – Clean .

7. Vehicle drag on the road – Check tyre pressure and fill air, if necessary.

8. Poor braking – Adjust brake pedal lever free play.

9. Poor pick-up – Check spark plug for correct fitment in the cylinder

head. Check points 1 to 8 given above.

10. Lack of power – Contact authorized service, station.



1. By owner Clean Adjust Lubricate Replace Frequency

i) Spark Plug ™ ™ ™ Monthly 8,000 kms

ii) Air filter ™ – – – Monthly

iii) Gear Oil – – – ™ As recommended by mfrs.

iv) Petrol strainer ™ – – ™ Refill

v) Fuel lines ™ ™ – – Monthly

vi) Carburettor ™ ™ – – Monthly

vii) Tyre pressure – ™ – – Refill

II- By authorized mechanic

i) Carburettor ™ ™ – – 4,000 Kms.

ii) Air filter ™ – – – 5,000 Kms.

iii) Throttle Operation – ™ ™ – 2,000 Kms.

iv) Front & rear Brake controls – ™ ™ – 4,000 Kms.

v) Clutch & gear levers – ™ ™ – -dovi)

Flywheel magneto ™ ™ – – -dovii)

De- carbonizing cylinder,

piston head & silencer

™ – – -doviii)

Other fitments – ™ ™ -do