Know your two wheeler

A two wheeler is generally operated by a 2- stroke spark ignition internal combustion engine

which supplies power to the wheels. The efficiency of which depends mainly on the compression

ratio and speed of rotation.

The Development of two wheeled scooters, motor cycles, mopeds and 3-wheelers equipped

with-2 stroke cycle engine is the outcome of research for a low cost mode of travel. These vehicles

are easy to drive and have good maneoeuvrability.

There has been a steady growth in the population of the/ three wheelers in our country. In March,

1996 the total population of two/tree-wheelers in the country was estimated at 24 million vehicles.

Stroke Engine

The Indian two-wheelers are mostly fitted with conventional 2- stroke engines. However, a few

manufacturers have introduced 4- stroke engine, the 4-strock engine has higher fuel efficiency, better

volumetric efficiency, complete fuel combustion and minimum air pollution. The engine is provided

with a separate oil tank to supply lubrication oil through the oil pump. At low speed and low load

extra oil is not supplied to the engine. This minimizes oil consumption and maximizes the interval

between de-carbonisation and thereby minimizes air pollution

Circulate free in public interest by P.C.R.A.


The oil companies have developed superior 2T oils specially for use in 2 stroke engines as

lubricating oil to be mixed with fuel in the recommended dosage at the time of filling.

The benefits of using superior 2T oils in the right proportion are: –

a) Excellent lubrication of engines at all operating temperatures and under the most adverse conditions.

b) Reduced spark plug fouling which also reduces maintenance cost.

c) Deposits formation in combustion chamber, exhaust port and the muffler is reduced,

thereby extending the periods between decarbonisation and leading to reduced power


d) Reduced wear of piston rings, cylinder, cylinder liners and associated components

thereby lengthening of the life of the engine.

e) Optimum performance of the engine.


1. Drive steadily and at the optimum speed :- Drive at an optimum speed of 30-40 kmph.

You will be surprised to find that your travel time does not increase significantly. Sudden

starts and ‘stop-and-ago’ driving waste fuel. Research shows that fat and rash driving can

increase fuel consumption substantially.

2. Use brakes sparingly :– A good driver anticipates stops. When you slam on the brakes, you

waste a lot of useful energy. Anticipate corner- you will be able to negotiate them without


3. Let go of your clutch: – Unnecessary use of the clutch leads to loss of power.

4. Clean air filter regularly:- Dust leads to rapid wear of engine components and increases

fuel combustion. Choked exhaust ports & Silencer make your engine struggle to breathe,

causing poor combustion.

5. Watch your tyre pressure: – Under inflated tyres increase rolling resistance and petrol

consumption. Tests show that under inflation of tyres by 25 % causes a 5 % increase in fuel

consumption and a 25% decrease in tyre life.

6. Stop fuel leaks :– Check your fuel tank, carburetor, and fuel lines daily for sings of leaking

fuel. Loss of one drop of fuel per second amounts to nearly 2000 litres per year.

7. Stop the engine if you stop for more than 2 minuets :- Idling can cost money- and fuel.

Stop your engine at long waits, for example, at railway crossings.

8. Keep your engine in good condition :– Tests on a large number of vehicles show that you

can save over 6% fuel by regular tuning. If your engine emits smoke of has poor pulling

power, have it checked immediately at a reputed garage.

9. Use superior 2T oils for lubrication :– Mix superior 2T oil conforming to international

API/TC specifications in recommended dosage to derive various benefits.


Different gears are provide to use the power of the engine to suit the work it has to do. In a

low gear, the engine revolution is faster, and so it consumes more fuel than it normally would

at the same road speed in a higher gear. For maximum fuel economy, gear changes must be

made at the right moment, that is when the speed you have reached in a low gear can be

maintained without increase acceleration in the next higher gear, or when you change down

without causing noisy, racing surge in the engine speed. Please follow the speed limits in the

engine speed. Please follow the speed limits for economical gear shifting as recommended by

the manufacturer.


Developed by Ministry of Industry Government of Indian

on the basis of trials carried out at Automotive Research

Association of India ( ARA) and Vehicle Research &

Development establishment ( VRDE).

Engine Capacity Kms/ litre of gasoline (min)

Less than 35 C.C. 95

35 C.C. to 75 C.C. 87

( Variable transmission)

35 C.C. to 75 C.C. 83

( Fixed transmission)

75 C.C. to 200 C.C. 60

Greater than 200 cc 55


Cause Remedy

1. Spark plug defects – Adjust gap and clean the plug point, Replace if


2. Fuel system Carburettor clogged/dirty – Check for, fuel leaks & rectify

Clean fuel, tank fuel tube, jet & carburetor body.

3. Air cleaner choked/dirty – Remove and clean it with air petrol and blow dry

with air.

4. Choke value sticking in closed position – Lubricate the choke control lever and keep it in

open position.

5. Hard to start due to over flow of the engine – Check points 1 to 4 given above while parking keep

fuel value in closed position and park at a paper

ground level.

6. Silencer outlet pipe choked – Clean .

7. Vehicle drag on the road – Check tyre pressure and fill air, if necessary.

8. Poor braking – Adjust brake pedal lever free play.

9. Poor pick-up – Check spark plug for correct fitment in the cylinder

head. Check points 1 to 8 given above.

10. Lack of power – Contact authorized service, station.



1. By owner Clean Adjust Lubricate Replace Frequency

i) Spark Plug ™ ™ ™ Monthly 8,000 kms

ii) Air filter ™ – – – Monthly

iii) Gear Oil – – – ™ As recommended by mfrs.

iv) Petrol strainer ™ – – ™ Refill

v) Fuel lines ™ ™ – – Monthly

vi) Carburettor ™ ™ – – Monthly

vii) Tyre pressure – ™ – – Refill

II- By authorized mechanic

i) Carburettor ™ ™ – – 4,000 Kms.

ii) Air filter ™ – – – 5,000 Kms.

iii) Throttle Operation – ™ ™ – 2,000 Kms.

iv) Front & rear Brake controls – ™ ™ – 4,000 Kms.

v) Clutch & gear levers – ™ ™ – -dovi)

Flywheel magneto ™ ™ – – -dovii)

De- carbonizing cylinder,

piston head & silencer

™ – – -doviii)

Other fitments – ™ ™ -do



“Aakash” Not The Cheapest Tablet in the World

The world’s “cheapest” tablet, dubbed Aakash, was launched today. But, there is one catch. It is not the cheapest tablet in the world. The Aakash is being supplied to the government by Canada-based Datawind at Rs 2276 or about USD 46 per tablet. However, a quick search on the Internet shows that there are cheaper and better tablets available for as low as USD 39.

For instance, a 7″ tablet running Android 2.2 OS, sporting a 800 MHZ Cortex-A8 processor with 256 MB RAM and 2GB Hard drive with a built-in camera and supporting 3G and Wi-Fi is available for USD 39.71.

Compared to that the USD 46 Aakash runs on a 366 MHz processor with 256MB RAM and 2GB of internal memory and doesn’t come with a built-in camera.

Similarly, there are scores of Chinese manufacturers offering tablets running various versions of Android with different processor speeds between USD 40 and USD 50. Compared to them, the Aakash seems a bit underpowered and overpriced.


Steve Jobs – A visionary artist of world of Innovation

Steve Jobs was born in San Francisco, California on February 24, 1955. His biological parents were unwed college graduates Joanne Simpson and Abdulfattah Jandali and had him adopted by a couple from south of the Bay Area, Paul and Clara Jobs. Paul and Clara called their son Steven Paul. While Steve was still a toddler, the couple moved to the Santa Clara county, later to be known as Silicon Valley. They adopted another baby, a girl called Patti, three years later in 1958.

Jobs attended Cupertino Junior High and Homestead High School in Cupertino, California. He frequented after-school lectures at the Hewlett-Packard Company in Palo Alto, California, and was later hired there, working with Steve Wozniak as a summer employee. Following high school graduation in 1972, Jobs enrolled at Reed College in Portland, Oregon. Although he dropped out after only one semester, he continued auditing classes at Reed.

Founding of Apple Computer

In 1974, Jobs took a position as a video game designer with Atari. Several months later he left Atari to find spiritual enlightenment in India, traveling the country and experimenting with psychedelic drugs. In 1976, when Jobs was just 21, he and Steve Wozniak started Apple Computers. The duo started in the Jobs family garage, and funded their entrepreneurial venture after Jobs sold his Volkswagen bus and Wozniak sold his beloved scientific calculator.

In 1976, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne, with funding from a then-semi-retired Intel product-marketing manager and engineer A.C. "Mike" Markkula Jr., founded Apple. Jobs and Wozniak had been friends for several years, having met in 1971, when their mutual friend, Bill Fernandez, introduced 21-year-old Wozniak to 16-year-old Jobs. Steve Jobs managed to interest Wozniak in assembling a computer and selling it. The first personal computer was sold for $666.66. By 1980, Apple had already released three improved versions of the personal computer. It had a wildly successful IPO, which made both founders millionaires many times over.

Jobs was among the first computer engineers to recognize the appeal of the mouse and the graphical interface, which let users operate computers by clicking on images instead of writing text. Apple’s pioneering Macintosh computer launched in early 1984 with a now-iconic, Orwellian-themed Super Bowl ad.


Apple’s first year in business consisted of assembling the boards in Steve’s garage and driving to local computer stores to try and sell them. Meanwhile, Woz worked on a new, much improved computer, the Apple II, which he basically finished in 1977. The Apple II soon became the symbol of the personal computing revolution worldwide. It crushed all competition both because of its breakthrough hardware features (including its color graphics) and its very large supply of compatible software. The key to Apple II’s success was actually VisiCalc, the first spreadsheet program ever brought to market. Thousands of people bought Apple IIs just to use it. As a result, the company grew at a very fast rate, and went public after just four years of existence, in December 1980. Steve Jobs’ net worth passed the $200 million mark on that day — he was only 25.

At Apple’s annual shareholders meeting on January 24, 1984, emotional Jobs introduced the Macintosh to a wildly enthusiastic audience; Andy Hertzfeld described the scene as "pandemonium". The Macintosh became the first commercially successful small computer with a graphical user interface. The development of the Mac was started by Jef Raskin, and eventually taken over by Jobs.

Jobs got the pink slip

While Jobs was a persuasive and charismatic director for Apple, some of his employees from that time had described him as an erratic and temperamental manager. An industry-wide sales slump towards the end of 1984 caused a deterioration in Jobs’ working relationship with Sculley, and at the end of May 1985 – following an internal power struggle and an announcement of significant layoffs because of disappointing sales at the time – Sculley relieved Jobs of his duties as head of the Macintosh division. Jobs later claimed that being fired from Apple was the best thing that could happen to him. "The heaviness of being successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again, less sure about everything. It freed me to enter one of the most creative periods of my life."

Success outside Apple

Then came a 10-year hiatus during which he founded NeXT Computer, whose pricey, cube-shaped computer workstations never caught on with consumers.

Jobs had more success when he bought Pixar Animation Studios from George Lucas before the company made it big with "Toy Story." Jobs brought the same marketing skill to Pixar that he became known for at Apple. His brief but emotional pitch for "Finding Nemo," for example, was a masterful bit of succinct storytelling.

Steve Jobs

Return to Apple Computers

In 1996, Apple bought NeXT, returning Jobs to the then-struggling company he had co-founded. Within a year, he was running Apple again — older and perhaps wiser but no less of a perfectionist. And in 2001, he took the stage to introduce the original iPod, the little white device that transformed portable music and kick-started Apple’s furious comeback.

In 2002, the company entered the high-end server market with the XServe. They also fought hard to catch up with the speed performances of the Wintel platform, and in June 2003, they unveiled the G5, a new chip they had developed with IBM that they claimed was the fastest in the world.

“Apple is strong”

But the biggest move was announced in June 2005, at Apple’s annual developers’ conference, WWDC. The company had just finished its complete transition to OS X after the release of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger, which was adopted by a very large majority of Mac users. That day, Steve Jobs came on stage and announced to a stunned audience that Apple was going to switch away from IBM to using Intel processors in their Macs.

The move to Intel was decisive in Apple’s fight against the Windows supremacy. Given his company’s growing momentum, Steve appropriately concluded his WWDC keynote address with the words: “Apple is strong”.

Fight with Cancer

In 2003, Jobs discovered he had a neuroendocrine tumor, a rare but operable form of pancreatic cancer. Instead of immediately opting for surgery, Jobs chose to alter his pescovegetarian diet while weighing Eastern treatment options. For nine months Jobs postponed surgery, making Apple’s board of directors nervous. Executives feared that shareholders would pull their stocks if word got out that their CEO was ill. But in the end, Job’s confidentiality took precedence over shareholder disclosure. In 2004, he had a successful surgery to remove the pancreatic tumor. True to form, in subsequent years Jobs has disclosed little about his health.

The birth of ‘I’

With the introduction of the iPod portable music player, iTunes digital music software, and the iTunes Store, the company made forays into consumer electronics and music distribution. On June 29, 2007, Apple entered the cellular phone business with the introduction of the iPhone, a multi-touch display cell phone, which also included the features of an iPod and, with its own mobile browser, revolutionized the mobile browsing scene. While stimulating innovation, Jobs also reminded his employees that "real artists ship", by which he meant that delivering working products on time is as important as innovation and attractive design.

The biggest of all was undeniably on January 27, when Steve Jobs finally introduced iPad, Apple’s much-anticipated tablet. There were rumors on an Apple tablet even before there were rumors on an Apple phone, and for good reasons: the labs of Cupertino started working on a tablet years before they worked on iPhone. Then, on January 27, Steve Jobs finally took the stage and unveiled iPad to the world. The presentation was bare, almost simplistic, with Steve sitting on a couch and demoing the device for most of his keynote.


In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO of Apple, but remained at the company as chairman of the company’s board. Hours after the announcement, Apple Inc. (AAPL) shares dropped 5% in after-hour trading. The relatively small drop, when considering the importance of Jobs to Apple, was associated with the fact that Jobs’ health had been in the news for several years, and he was on medical leave since January 2011. It was believed, according to Forbes, that the impact would be felt in a negative way beyond Apple, including at The Walt Disney Company where Jobs served as director. In after-hour trading on the day of the announcement, Walt Disney Co. (DIS) shares dropped 1.5%.

Jobs was both admired and criticized for his consummate skill at persuasion and salesmanship, which has been dubbed the "reality distortion field" and was particularly evident during his keynote speeches (colloquially known as "Stevenotes") at Macworld Expos and at Apple’s own Worldwide Developers Conferences.

He also built a reputation as a hard-driving, mercurial and sometimes difficult boss who oversaw almost every detail of Apple’s products and rejected prototypes that didn’t meet his exacting standards.

Jobs’ Legacy

Jobs’ climb to the top was complete in summer 2011, when Apple listed more cash reserves than the U.S. Treasury and even briefly surpassed Exxon Mobil as the world’s most valuable company.

Jobs resigned as CEO of Apple on August 24, 2011 and subsequently assumed the role of Chairman of the Board. He was succeeded by Tim Cook as the next Chief Executive Officer of Apple.

On October 5, 2011, Jobs passed away.

Fall in love with self..!

Fall in love with self..!

Baat be-baat pe apni hi baat kehta hai
Mere andar mera chhota sa sheher rehta hai

Mera andar ka sheher kaafi khubsurat sa lagta hai mujhey. Iski sadkein jaise mere liye hi bani hain. Kisi bhi raaste par chal padu, manzil hamesha ek ‘yaad’ hoti hai. Kabhi koi dhundli si yaad, kabhi koi muskuraati huyi yaad, kabhi koi rulati huyi yaad, to kabhi wo yaad jise mehsoos kar ke lage ki kaash mai ise phir se jee lu.Waise sach kahun to kuch yaadein mai chhup ke jee bhi leta hoon. Kabhi kabhi Papa ke scooter pe zidd karke ghoomne chala jaata hoon… OSCM ke lecture me us purane dost ke saath bekaar ki baatein bana kar has leta hoon..saat aath saal ki umr me jaakar bade hone ke sapne dekh leta hoon..aur school ke dino me jakar bohot saarey paise kamane ka bhi soch leta hoon. Sach poochho to maza aata hai. Apni yaadon ko jaisa mann kahe waise jeene ki azaadi hai yahan.

Meri yaadon ko meri hi zubaani kehta hai
Wahi chhota sa sheher jo mere andar rehta hai

Mere sheher ke log bhi kaafi apne se lagte hain. Zadatar mere dost hain yahan par. Ek wo hai jo English test me meri notebook me jhaankta hai…ek wo hai jiske gifts me hamesha ghadi hoti hai…ek wo bhi hai jiske saath Devanand aur Rajesh Khanna ki nakal kiya karte hain. Yahan ke log mera kaafi khayaal rakhte hai. Asal zindagi se bhi zyada. Mera bhi har waqt dil karta hai ki unhe khush dekhun. Asal zindagi me unse door reh kar ‘Yaad Sheher’ me unse milu aur khubsari baatein karun. Is sheher me mera wo dost bhi hai jo mere saath rehta hai, wo jiske saath ek hi plate me khana khaane ki aadat si ho gayi thi.Mai aur wo yahan bhi ek hi kamre me rehte hain. Kisi aur ko ‘roommate’ ki jagah dekhne ka khayal, khayalon me bhi nahi aa paya. Isme mera wo dost bhi rehta hai jiske saath baatein hamesha ‘hello…thank you’ se shuru hoti hain. Hum yaad sheher me bhi ek dusre ki baatein bina kahe hi samajh jaate hain aur yahan bhi kisi ko hamare mazaak par hasi nahi aati. Par mujhey fark nahi padta. Kyuki yaad sheher me guzara har ek pal mujhey ek khushi si de jata hai.

Yahan ke har bande ko mera apna kehta hai
Wahi chhota sa sheher jo mere andar rehta hai

Jis tarah koi shayar apni tanhai se baatein kiya karta tha, mai apne yaad sheher ki yaado se baatein karti hoon. Mere saare din ka sukoon isi sheher me kahin chhupa hota hai. Usey dhoondte huye raaste me kai yaadein mujhey mil jaati hain. Mai apne hisse ke waqt ke do pal unhe de deti hoon. Unhe chhu ke, mehsoos kar ke, ek aur baar jee ke..aage badh jaati hoon. Shayad is yaqeen ke saath ki wo saari yaadein mere Yaad Sheher me mehfooz hain. Mai dobara aungi to wo mujhey yahin kahin phir milengi.

Apni yaadon me aksar mujhey kehta hai
Mere andar mera chhota sa sheher rehta hai.